Linux Installation

Installation on Linux requires both a C and a Fortran compiler; a recent GCC is recommended (the C compiler is likely included with your distribution). On Debian and Ubuntu:

sudo apt-get install gfortran

Once this is set up, pip install spacepy should Just Work. If you’re installing as a single user (not in a virtual environment) then add the --user flag.

You will also need the NASA CDF library to use pycdf.

Our recommended (but not required) Python distribution is Anaconda running 64-bit Python 3. Anaconda includes much of the scientific Python stack. Another excellent distribution is Canopy.

You may need to install the dependencies some way other than pip; for example, if you are running an earlier version of Python. The latest version of many dependencies requires Python 3.6 and pip will not install older versions to get around this. See Dependencies via conda and Dependencies via system packages.

Dependencies via conda

Installation via pip will automatically install most Python dependencies (but not the NASA CDF library). They can also be installed from conda:

conda install numpy scipy matplotlib networkx h5py

Dependencies via system packages

SpacePy usually works with the system Python on Linux. To install dependencies via the package manager on Debian or Ubuntu:

sudo apt-get install python-dev python-h5py python-matplotlib python-networkx python-numpy python-scipy

For Python 3, use:

sudo apt-get install python3-dev python3-h5py python3-matplotlib python3-networkx python3-numpy python3-scipy

For other distributions, check SpacePy Dependencies and install by hand or via your package manager.


It is recommended to install the ncurses library; on Ubuntu and Debian:

sudo apt-get install ncurses-dev

Download the latest CDF library. Choose the file ending in -dist-all.tar.gz from the linux directory. Untar and cd into the resulting directory. Then build:

make OS=linux ENV=gnu CURSES=yes FORTRAN=no UCOPTIONS=-O2 SHARED=yes all

Use CURSES=no if the curses library is not installed. (The distribution-specific directions above will install curses.)


sudo make install

This will install the library into the default location /usr/local/cdf, where SpacePy can find it. If you choose to install elsewhere, see the CDF documentation, particularly the notes on the CDF_BASE and CDF_LIB environment variables. SpacePy uses these variables to find the library.


ffnet can be installed from pip; if the wrong Fortran compiler is found try:

FC_VENDOR=gfortran pip install ffnet

It can also be installed from sourcea. Compilation requires f2py (from numpy), installed per the distribution-specific directions above. Untar and cd into the resulting directory. Then build:

python build

Either install just for one user:

python install --user

Or install for all users on the system:

sudo python install

Normally the correct Fortran compiler will be found; if compilation fails, try specifying the older GNU compiler at the build step:

python build --fcompiler=gnu


With the dependencies installed, SpacePy can be built from source. This uses the same basic setup as ffnet (standard Python distutils). You can always get the latest source code for SpacePy from our github repository and the latest release from PyPI


python build

If this fails, specify a Fortran compiler:

python build --fcompiler=gnu95

python build --help-fcompiler will list options for Fortran compilers. Currently available compilers are pg, gnu95, gnu, intelem, intel or none (to skip all Fortran); gnu95 (the GNU gfortran compiler) is recommended.

Install for one user:

python install --user

If you’re using conda, installation as user isn’t recommended:

python install

Or install for all users on the system:

sudo python install

If you want to build the documentation yourself (rather than using the documentation shipped with SpacePy), install sphinx and numpydoc. The easiest way is via pip:

pip install sphinx numpydoc

They are also available via conda:

conda install sphinx numpydoc

Or the package manager:

sudo apt-get install python-sphinx python-numpydoc

For Python 3:

sudo apt-get install python3-sphinx python3-numpydoc